Kupuj / konsumuj / …

This was an experience replicated around the country from a single archetype: Southdale Center in Edina, Minn. Opened in 1956, it was the brainchild of Austrian architect Victor Gruen, a socialist appalled by American sprawl he described as “avenues of horror.”

Josh Sanburn „Why the Death of Malls Is About More Than Shopping

Over that period, the mall was the scene of several crimes. A homeless man was sentenced to prison for living inside a vacant store there…

Hayley Peterson „Dying shopping malls are wreaking havoc on suburban America

i nieco statystyki (w tekście, tu cytat tylko):

Much to the ire of their creator, malls have diverged greatly from their original concept. In a 1978 interview, Gruen made it clear he did not support the direction modern malls had taken. “I am often called the father of the shopping mall”, he said. “I would like to take this opportunity to disclaim paternity once and for all. I refuse to pay alimony to those bastard developments. They destroyed our cities.”

Callum Glennen „The rise and fall of the US mall

i dodatkowo:

Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum (…) was an Austrian-born architect best known as a pioneer in the design of shopping malls in the United States…


Northland Center also made a lot of money, and pretty soon developers were replicating the concept all across the country. Just as the first residential suburb designs were utopian minded, developers began to squeeze out the unnecessary financial costs and focussed more and more on pure consumption.

The Father of the Shopping Mall, Victor Gruen, was an Urbanist
(i stamtąd zdjęcie: Northland Center, Detroit, 1954)

taa: Urbanista… Miasto (+ maszyna + Monster). Oświecenie, Rozwój, Ludzkość, Koncepcja.
(ci Tatusiowie Wielkich Idei zawsze tak mówią: koncepcja była słuszna, ale…)
także tak.
mr m.

4 myśli na temat “Kupuj / konsumuj / …

        1. To pewne.

          …the commission reported that Slavic people demonstrated „fanaticism in religion, carelessness as to the business virtues of punctuality and often honesty.”

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